The prehistory of Nubia dates back to 300,000 years ago. By about 6000 BC, peoples in the region had developed an agricultural economy.
Early inhabitants of the Nubia region were succeeded by the first Nubian language speakers, whose tongues belonged to the separate Nilo-Saharan phylum.
Although Egypt and Nubia have a shared pre-dynastic and pharaonic history, the two histories diverge with the fall of Ancient Egypt and the conquest of Egypt by Alexander the Great in 332 BC. At this point, the area of land between the 1st and the 6th cataract of the Nile became known as Nubia.
MUHAMMAD ALI DYNASTY
In 1798 Egypt was invaded by the French forces of Napoleon Bonaparte, then French were defeated by the British.
After the French were expelled, power in Egypt was seized in 1805 by Muhammad Ali Pasha, an Albanian military commander of the Ottoman army in Egypt. Muhammad Ali massacred the Egyptian Mamluks, who ruled Egypt for centuries and established a dynasty that was to rule Egypt until the revolution of 1952.
In 1820 – 1824 Muhammad Ali annexed Northern Sudan.
From the British occupation of 1882 to 1914, although nominally a vassal of the Turkish Empire, Egypt was, in fact, a United Kingdom protectorate. However, the United Kingdom did not officially declare a protectorate over Egypt until December 18, 1914, which lasted until January 28, 1922. In 1898 a joint Anglo – Egyptian military force brought to an end a revolution in the formerly Egyptian administered Sudan.
Following this military action, the United Kingdom made claim to a voice in the administration of Sudan, which was realized by the Anglo – Egyptian Agreement of 1899 relative to the joint administration of the state by the two signatories. That agreement established the boundary between Egypt and Sudan initially as the parallel of 22° North.
On July 25, 1902 a new administrative boundary was created by an arête by the Egyptian Minister of the Interior.
BIRTH OF BIR TAWIL
For many years Egypt and Sudan both claim different border lines, where they both would have the Hala’ib Triangle, leaving ten times smaller piece of land – Bir Tawil, to the other. As both claim the Hala’ib Triangle, neither claims Bir Tawil.
Border disagreement between Egypt and Sudan left Bir Tawil De jure no man’s land.
On December 17, 2014, Bir Tawil was reached by two noble travelers, who claimed the area, declared the sovereignty of its territory and established the Kingdom of Mediae Terrae Bir Tawil with HRM Dmitry I as a Ruler and Mika Ronkainen as a Duke of the Southern Territories.